Notes

“Requested Border Wall Funding for 2020” is based on President Trump’s request to Congress for funding construction of a wall on the southern border in his fiscal year 2020 budget.

“Continue Bipartisan Budget Act Increases” is the average annual cost of extending discretionary spending increases in the Bipartisan Budget act of 2018, which repealed the “sequestration” spending cuts.

“Free College Tuition” is based on the average annual cost of the proposal from Senator Bernie Sanders (I-VT) during the 2016 presidential campaign to make public college tuition free for all Americans.

"Green New Deal, non-healthcare (AAF)" is the annual average of the high and low estimates from the American Action Forum's (AAF) interpretation of the Green New Deal resolution introduced in the House of Representatives. This figure excludes the universal health care portion of the proposal because there is a separate "Medicare for All" estimate in the tool.

“Increase Social Security Benefits by 5 Percent” is the average annual cost of increasing benefits for all Social Security recipients by 5 percent.

“LIFT the Middle Class Act” is the average annual cost of legislation (S.4) introduced in the U.S. Senate by Senator Kamala Harris (D-CA), which would provide a refundable tax credit up to $6,000 a year to families earning less than $100,000 annually.

“Medicare for All” is the average additional annual cost of government-run universal health care, based on estimates of the proposal from Senator Bernie Sanders (I-VT) during the 2016 presidential campaign. This estimate is the additional spending by the federal government, which most proposals have not discussed how to finance.

“Pension Reform” is based on the average annual cost of the Butch-Lewis Act of 2017, which would make loans to underfunded pension plans.

“Repeal ‘Cadillac’ and Medical Device Taxes” is the average annual cost of eliminating the tax on high-cost health insurance plans that will take effect starting in 2020, known as the ‘Cadillac Tax,” and the excise tax on the value of medical devices sold in the U.S.

“Repeal Estate Tax” is the average annual cost of eliminating the tax on inherited estates.

“Tax Cuts and Jobs Act” is the average annual cost of the tax cuts passed in 2017.

“Tax Cuts 2.0” is the average annual cost of legislation introduced in late 2018 that would make permanent the individual tax reductions in the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act.

“Energy” is federal budget function 270. According to the House Budget Committee, it “contains civilian energy and environmental programs in the Department of Energy (DOE), the Rural Utilities Service of the Department of Agriculture, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.”

“Transportation” is federal budget function 400. According to the House Budget Committee, it “consists of programs that support and oversee various modes of transportation, including highways, mass transit, rail, air, and maritime transportation. It includes programs that finance infrastructure investments as well as important safety and research efforts.”

“Justice” is federal budget function 750. According to the House Budget Committee, it “consists of programs that provide federal law enforcement, litigation and judicial services, federal correctional operations, and state and local criminal justice assistance. The Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Drug Enforcement Administration, and the Federal Bureau of Prisons are some of the agencies within this function.”